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DEHUMANIZATION                           65

gave rise to the myth he created, like that of
Mars concerning the infallibility and sanctity of
the will of the proletariat.

In reality, however, a sovereign people, just
like a sovereign proletariat, may abolish all
liberty and completely suppress human person-
ality, may demand that man renounce his personal
conscience. In complete control of the state, a
sovereign people may take its state for a church
and on that basis begin to organize the spirit and
spiritual life. And every " ideocracy," whose
prototype is the Republic of Plato, takes the state
for a church and ascribes ecclesiastical functions
to the state. In principle the Jacobin democracy
is already a tyrannical ideocracy denying the
freedom of the spirit. The idea of inalienable
subjective rights for personality is of quite a
different origin, and is, of course, much more
Christian than that of a sovereign people. As
Mussolini remarks, when a united people takes
the state finally into its own hands, the state
actually becomes that of the people. Then the
state becomes absolute, it is subject to no limi-
tations whatever. Against an absolute state,
oppressed personality has always struggled, the
personality of subject-groups such as the bour-
geoisie, the intellectuals, the workers, and they
have tried to enforce limitations upon the state.
But when the struggle between castes, classes and